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South America, Guyana.
Waterton's Demerara, Page 5 - Waterton's Plantations continued
Waterton's Demerara - The Plantation Years & More

• 1 - Introduction • 2 - Essequibo Gentlemen & Orinoco Privateers • 3 - Mibiri Creek • 4 - Waterton's Plantations • 5 - Waterton's Plantations, continued • 6 - Slavery on the Plantations & Elsewhere
~~~
• See also • Guyana Gallery  • Georgetown Gallery  •  The Orinoco Adventure - A Visit to Angostura

Miscellaneous information about, and references to, the plantations with a Waterton connection.
(continued from page 1)

2. FELLOWSHIP
Region 3. Essequibo Islands-West Demerara

Map

Fellowship was one of the two estates that were managed by Charles Waterton on behalf of the owner, his paternal uncle Christopher Waterton of Woodlands near Doncaster, Yorkshire. The other was La Jalousie.

~~~O~~~

"Many Essequibo villages were the result of an enlightened planter strategy of the 1840s, which envisaged that the sale of a small portion of the front lands to the emancipated workers on an individual property basis would gain good will and secure a labour force. This calculatuion proved correct. In West Demerara, there was the same pattern of interspersed and interdependent estates and villages. The villagers of .... Den Amstel and Fellowship were associated with Plantations Hague, Blankenburg and Windsor Forest". (2)

"In the late 18th century ex-slaves pooled their resources together and purchased the plantation, having learnt that it was up for sale. During this time much emphasis was placed on Fellowship. According to historical revelations, Den Amstel was a coffee plantation owned by a Dutch planter named John Craig. Plantation Den Amstel was named after the two sons of Mr. Craig; his sons' names were Denny and Amstel.

Den Amstel and Fellowship is situated in the County of Demerara. It is about seven miles from Vreed-en-Hoop, which is on the left bank of the Demerara River. It sandwiches two villages, Plantation Blankenburg on the east and Plantation Hague on the west. Its border on the north is Atlantic Ocean and on the south, the Boerasirie Conservancy. It was not recorded how Fellowship got its name*, however, strong indications are that it has its origin with the new proprietors of the plantation".
[Extract from the History of Den Amstel and Fellowship on Guyana Under Siege.] (4)

(* Plantation Fellowship had that name at the beginning of the 19th century, the time of the Watertons.)

See also the extract from the plantation table (below).


Compensation for Slave Owners
In 1833 the British Parliament finally abolished slavery in the British Empire in the Caribbean, Mauritius and the Cape. The slave trade itself had been abolished in 1807, but it took another 26 long years to set the enslaved free. In place of slavery the negotiated settlement established a system of apprenticeship, forcing the freed slaves into another form of tied labour for fixed terms. It also granted £20 million in compensation, to be paid by British taxpayers to the former slave-owners.

As far as Fellowship and La Jalousie plantations are concerned, the following claim is recorded on the UCL database (7):

British Guiana 693 (La Jalousie & Fellowship)

Date 30th Nov 1835.
No. of slaves 292.
Claim amount £15,482 14s 8d

British Guiana claim nos. 693 and 694 together.
Claim by Robert, George, Henry and Agnes Waterston [=Waterton]; Matilda Jermingham; and others. Assigned to Philip Frederick Tinne etc.

Enslaved persons were registered in 1832 by Robert Waterston [=Waterton], for himself and others.
Robert Waterston [=Waterton] registered 79 enslaved persons on Fellowship estate.

3. LA JALOUSIE
Region 3. Essequibo Islands-West Demerara
Map

La Jalousie was one of the two estates that were managed by Charles Waterton on behalf of the owner, his paternal uncle Christopher Waterton of Woodlands near Doncaster, Yorkshire. The other was Fellowship.
Click to enlarge
La Jalousie Nursey School.
Click to enlarge
View towards the public road from an abandoned estate.
Click to enlarge
Remains of buildings at an abandoned plantation.
Click to enlarge
Looking inland, the remains of buildings and equipment.
Click to enlarge
More remains quietly rusting away.
Click to enlarge
Close-up view.
Click to enlarge
View across public road to the sluice gate or koker.
Click to enlarge
A drainage ditch alongside the abandoned estate, looking inland.
Click to enlarge
A Guinness advertisement
that appears to be masquerading as a koker.
Click to enlarge
Blankenburg Primary School.

 

Compensation for Slave Owners

See Fellowship (above) for details of compensation claims by slave owners.

Newspaper Articles

The Argosy (1883)
As contained in Walter Rodney's book Guyanese Sugar Plantations, etc. (5)

The review in The Argosy states:
"La Jalousie, which lies next to Blankenburg, was the family estate of the Waterons (of Walton Hall, Yorkshire). To this estate the 'wanderer' would return after his long peregrinations through the interior of the Colony in search of natural history treasures, to rest and recruit before setting out again. His brother Charles was the manager.* The Watertons were men of great taste and progressive ideas. Their front lands were ploughed and sown with Englsh grassn seeds; and it was a pretty sight to see a number of English thoroughbred mares with their foals, scampering over the velvety turf of the well-kept pasture lands. But bad times came, and the family exchequer became exhausted. The stock farm had to be sacrificed and every farthing expended upon the cane fields, but still the wolf could not be kept from the door, and after a long and bitter struggle the estate was brought to the hammer. Since the days of the Watertons it has been through many vicissitudes. It is now the property of the wealthy firm of George Little and Co. The improved machinery which has been erected on the estate could not have been placed in position for less than $50,000. The acreage consists of 619 in canes and 201 uncultivated. The crop is 1,100 hogsheads (990 tons). The population at the last Census consisted of 61 Creoles#, 109 Indian Creoles, 187 of other lands; besides Immigrants, who in the Official Returns are stated at 128 indentured and 516 unindentured". (5)

* Walter Rodney, who edited and introduced the above material in the Argosy, comments:
"There is a small error in the text here. Charles Waterton, who managed the estates alluded to, was himself the 'Wanderer'. La Jalousie and Fellowship were owned by his uncle [Christopher of Woodlands near Doncaster, Yorkshire], while Walton Hall had recently been purchased by his father [Thomas] when Charles Waterton first arrived in Guiana in 1805. His exploits as a naturalist are set down in Charles Waterton, Wanderings in South America, London, 1825". (5)

# Creole - a person of European descent born in the West Indies or Spanish America. (There are variations of this definition.)
"Children born in the colony of white parents are called Creoles; but the the name Creole is, in common parlance, indiscriminately and incorreectly used for all colony bred persons and animals. Black and coloured children are called Creoles, and we hear of Creole horses and Creole sheep". (6)

Essequebo and Demerary Gazette
No. 204, Saturday 22nd November 1806

Pursuant to a Proclamation of the Hon. Court of Policy, and by permission of the Hon. F. P. van Berckel, fiscal, at the expiration of three Weeks from the date hereof, will be sold, at Public Vendue*, a Black Stallion, brought from the Plantation La Jalousie, on the 17th instant; and a Bay Gelding, brought by Mr. Rynders, Manager of Plantation Le Repentir, on the 20th inst. meanwhile the Owners may have them restored on paying the expenses to J. Runnels, J Z.
Stabroek, Nov. 22, 1806. Sheriff (1)

[* sale - from Dutch vendu, from Old French vendue a sale, from vendre to sell, from Latin vendere]

4. BELLE VUE

Essequebo and Demerary Gazette
No. 111, Saturday 9th November 1805.

Picked up on Plantation Belle Vue, a Ships small boat, clinker built, white bottom, yellow sides, black bends and brown inside, with rudder irons; also a Creale, with a forecastle and stern sheets, Whoever can prove the same to be their Property, can have them by Paying for this Advertisement.
Belle Vue, 9th February, 1805. (1)
~~~~~~

Essequebo and Demerary Royal Gazette
Vol. 2, No. 79, Saturday 4th July 1807.

Captain Pavy, of the Brig Sisters Providence, of London, burthen about 180 Tons, offers to any Gentleman a Premium of One Hundred Guineas, who will engage to load his said Vessel with Produce at the current rates of Freight for London, to sail with first Convoy, he has already equal to 100 hogsheads engaged - which will of course be included. For further particulars apply to C. Macrae Esqr. in Cumingsburgh, or on Board the Vessel, laying off Belle Vue Estate.
Demerary, 4th July 1807. (1)

See also the extract from the plantation table (below).

~~~~0~~~~

TABLE 1: PLANTATIONS (extract)

The Demerary and Essequebo Royal Gazette
Plantation Chart (extract)
Supplement to Vol. X, No. 778, Saturday, 8th Aprill, 1815.

A List of Estates in Demerary and Essequebo,
With the Number of Slaves on each, and the Quantity of Produce made during the Year – 1813. (See table notes)

DEMERARY
Names of Plantations

No. of Slaves

Sugar, at 12st. per 100lbs.

Pounds.

Rum, at F 3 per 100 gals.

Gallons.

Coffee, at 27st. per 100lbs.

Pounds.

Cotton, F 3 per 100lbs.

Pounds.

Amount of Tax

Belle Vue (Demerary)
304
402,000
20,259
3019.16

Fellowship

72
15,365
207.8

Le Bienfait & Jalousie#

359
536,572
28,233
4066.10
Walton Hall, Pomaroon*
79
     
10,030
301

Table Notes
# Presumed to be La Jalousie.
* Chart 2,
in Vol. X, No. 782, Saturday, 22nd April, 1815, continued from Vol. X, No. 778, Saturday, 8th Aprill, 1815

All information taken from the Books of the Colonial Receiver M. Viret, Accountant to the Financial Department.
Published by Command of the Honorable Court of Policy, Charles Wilday, Clk. Ct. Policy.

A Note on Currency
The tax values in the table are presumably guilders and stivers. This would make the tax for Belle Vue around £251 assuming that £1 = 12 guilders at the time.

In British Guiana, the guilder replaced the Dutch guilder at par after the colonies were captured by the British from the Dutch. The guilder was initially subdivided into 20 stuiver, in English stiver. Brazilian peças (6400 réis gold coins*, known locally as joes, circulated at a value of 22 guilders. The exchange rate to the British pound was initially fixed at 1 pound (i.e. 20 shillings or 240 old pence) = 12 guilders (thus 1 guilder = 1s 8d or 20 old pence).

In 1836, the guilder was reduced in value to 16 old pence (1s. 4d) and, in 1839, the British pound and British Guiana dollar replaced the guilder as the currency of British Guiana, at the rates of 1 pound = 15 guilders and 1 dollar = 3⅛ guilders (thus 1 pound = 4.8 dollars; 1 dollar = 4s. 2d, or 50 old pence).

The first issue of coins from 1798 and 1799 were overstamps on Brazilian peças. These were followed in 1808 by an issue which consisted of holed Spanish dollars, worth 3 guilders, and the plugs, worth 3 bits (equal to 15 stiver). (3)

■ A stiver token for use in the Colonies of Essequibo and Demarary. Issued during the reign of King George III (25th October 1760 - 29th January 1820).

TABLE 2: ARRESTED SLAVES

ARRESTED SLAVES,
In the Colony-Jail of Demerary & Essequebo.

Names Proprietors Brought By

Jasper

Pl. Belle Vue

W. Hill

a
Primo Staunton Pl. Belle Vue
b
Primo Staunton Pl. Belle Vue
c

Damon

Pl. Jealousie [sic]#

Pl. Pouderoyen

d*

Damon

Pl. Jealousie [sic] Pl. Pouderoyen
e
Damon Pl. Jealousie [sic] Pl. Pouderoyen
f.

Source for table
The Demerary and Essequebo Royal Gazette
a. Vol. X, No. 814, Saturday, 12th August 1815.
b. Vol. X, No. 819, Tuesday, 29th August 1815.
c. Vol. X, No. 820, Saturday, 2nd September 1815.
d. Vol. X, No. 758, Saturday, 28th January, 1815.
e. Vol. X, No. 760, Saturday, 4th February, 1815.
f. Vol. X, No. 762, Saturday, 11th February, 1815.


* In the Colony-Stock of Demerary, otherwise all in the Colony-Jail of Demerary & Essequebo.
# Presumably La Jalousie.

[All from Guyana Colonial Newspapers. (1)]


Notes
1. Guyana Colonial Newspapers, http://www.vc.id.au/edg/index.html
2. History of the Guyanese Working People, 1881 - 1905, Walter Rodney, Heinemann Educational Books, London, 1981, pp 54 - 55. He expands upon the description of sugar estates serialised in The Argosy (British Guiana) in 1883.
3. Based largely upon the article British Guianan Guilder in Wikipedia.
4. Guyana Under Siege.
5. Guyanese Sugar Plantations in the Late Nineteenth Century, A Contemporary Description from the Argosy. Edited and introduced by Walter Rodney, Release Publishers, Georgetown, Guyana, 1979.
6. Twenty-five Years in British Guiana, Henry Kirke, Sampson Low, Marston & Company, London, 1898.
7. University College London (UCL) project: Legacies of British Slave-ownership.



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